### Two Squares and Four Squares

Diophantus of Alexandria wrote a collection of books called Arithmetica in the 3rd century AD. He noted that natural numbers of the form cannot be expressed as the sum of two square numbers. He also [more…]

Diophantus of Alexandria wrote a collection of books called Arithmetica in the 3rd century AD. He noted that natural numbers of the form cannot be expressed as the sum of two square numbers. He also [more…]

Part of a conversation between Mission Control and Apollo 11 : 104:59:27 Garriott: Columbia, Houston. Over. 104:59:34 Collins: Columbia. Go. 104:59:35 Garriott: Columbia, Houston. We noticed you are maneuvering very close to gimbal lock. I [more…]

Euler’s Partition Theorem: The number of distinct partitions of an integer, , is equal to the number of odd partitions of that integer : , for all . Euler gave us a proof which is [more…]

Euler gave us the following recursion formula for via his Pentagonal Number Theorem : Note the generalised pentagonal numbers in the above. Define if and let . This is the formula that [more…]

Some may have noticed that I have been giving a representation of the countdown clock. The first line is the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. That is, every integer can be represented by a unique factorisation [more…]

Euler, : In considering the partitions of numbers, I examined, a long time ago, the expression in which the product is assumed to be infinite. In order to see what kind of series will result, [more…]

We considered the pentagonal numbers which begin : That is : for Now consider the following sequence : which begins at and has a common difference of between the terms. For any arithmetic sequence, we [more…]

Hypsicles of Alexandria (c.190 – c.120 B.C.) gave the following definition of polygonal numbers : If there are as many numbers as we please beginning from 1 and increasing by the same common difference, then, [more…]

One sometimes gets very interesting results when one turns divergent sums upside down. The Basel problem was asked by Pietro Mengoli in . He asked what is the exact summation of the reciprocals of the [more…]

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